EAD welcome research collaboration enquires or knowledge contributions from suitably qualified research entities/individuals in closing below listed knowledge gaps. Interested parties should contact Customerhappiness@ead.gov.ae with subject “Research Collaboration”  and including the Research Question ID. Research collaboration enquiries should describe the capabilities and resources the party can contribute.

EAD Sub-priority Research Question ID  Research Question 
Development of policies and regulations for the mitigation and adaptation to climate change 21-1A.1-01 Assess the potential climate change impacts arising from GHG emissions in Abu Dhabi Emirate. 
21-1A.1-02 Based on AGEDI and most recent studies need to determine how to integrate natural ecosystems into GHG inventories and NDCs; also quantify changes on GHGs when natural ecosystems are lost.
21-1A.2-01 What regulation is needed to enhance better understanding of climate change and provide options for mitigation and adaptation?
21-1A.3-01 How can ecosystems be managed to increase protection of humans and biodiversity from extreme events?
21-1.A3-02 What is the effect of climate change on species persistence in sensitive ecosystems (e.g. corals)?
21-1.A3-03 Assess effectivness of artificial reefs to support overall coral resilience
21-1.A3-04 Determine the factors that contribute to resilient coral reefs
21-1.A3-05 Conduct studies to assess the vulnerability of human populations and ecosystems to climate change
21-1.A3-06 Determine how adaptable critical habitats and species are to climate change
21-1.A3-07 Assess the influence of climate change on ecosystem range / extent
21-1.A3-08 Assessment potential influence of climate change on the spread of invasive species
21-1A.4-01 Which elements of biodiversity in which locations are most vulnerable/resilient to climate change, including extreme events?
21-1A.4-02 How is the resilience of ecosystems to climate change affected by human activities and interventions?
21-1A.4-03 What factors determine the rates at which coastal ecosystems can respond to sea-level rise, and which of these are amenable to management?
21-1A.4-04 How will climate change, together with other environmental stressors, alter the distribution and prevalence of diseases of wild species?
21-1A.4-05 How will human responses to climate change (e.g., changes in agriculture, resource conflicts, and migration) affect biodiversity?
21-1A.4-06 How might biodiversity policies and management practices be modified and implemented to accommodate climate change?
21-1A.4-07 How might emerging carbon markets affect biodiversity through their impacts on the protection, management, and creation of habitats?
21-1A.4-08 What are the potential effects of feedbacks between climate change and ecosystem dynamics (e.g., drought, forest dieback, and coral bleaching) on the effectiveness of policy measures to sequester carbon and protect biodiversity?
21-1A.4-09 How much carbon is sequestered by different ecosystems, including their soils, and how can these ecosystems be managed to contribute most effectively to the mitigation of climate change?
21-1A.4-10 How, where, and to what extent can natural and seminatural ecosystems contribute to climate change adaptation and mitigation?
21-1A.4-11 How will climate change affect the distribution and impacts of climate-dependent disturbance regimes?
21-1A.4-12 How will climate change affect global/regional/local food production (particularly fisheries and aquaculture), and what are the resulting consequences for ecosystems and agrobiodiversity?
21-1A.4-13 How does biodiversity shape social resilience to the effects of climate change?
21-1A.4-14 How is climate change likely to affect the abundance, rates of growth, and distribution of and interactions among populations?
21-1A.4-15 How can undesirable ecological, social, and economic effects of future changes in freshwater availability be reduced or mitigated?
21-1A.4-16 What are the GHG future scenarios important for avoiding unsustainable development pathways, what are the economic and externality implications, and how can the acceptable pathways be reached by the government, corporates and indiviuals?
21-1A.4-17 Based on the UAE National Climate Change Plan 2017-2050, What is the acceptable carbon management strategy and science-based targets for the government and corporates in AD Emirate?
21-1A.4-18 What are the integrated policies and co-control measures that can effectively address the air quality and climate change in the Emirate, and what are their health and climate co-benefits?
21-1A.4-19 What policies and management strategies most effectively mitigate the undesirable effects of non-native invasive species, potential disease vectors, and emerging pathogens?
21-1A.4-20 Based on various development scenarios, conduct or re-appraise land-use modeling to incorporate climate change considerations and determine the future state of the natural resource base of the emirate
21-1A.4-21 Accounting for climate change impacts, determine how and to what extent various land use practices exacerbate the impact of natural disasters, including in the coastal area
21-1A.4-22 Impacts of climate change on flora/fauna and associated adaptation options for key species considered to be of high priority 
21-1A.4-23 Determine the critical components/features of coastal vegetation for maintenance of critical ecosystem functions in the face of climate change impacts
21-1A.4-24 Assess the economic value of ecosystem services (terrestrial and marine), particularly, their value in protection against natural disasters
21-1A.4-25 What are the economic sectors that are the most vulnerable to climate change impacts on biodiversity? E.g. loss of corals impacting tour operators, coastal infrastructure risks etc
Policy & regulation development and monitoring for the improvement of air quality and the reduction of noise pollution 21-1B.1-01 How to best set the values for Abu Dhabi KPIs and how to define a work plan to achieve those targets? Consider alternative/complementary modelling approaches in combination with stakeholder engagement
21-1B.1-02 How to best evaluate effectiveness, cost-efficiency, feasibility, and performance of policies and measures (ex-ante and ex-post)
21-1B.1-03 What are the effects of air quality on health in Abu Dhabi emirate?
21-1B.1-04 Design method and mechanisms to inform vulnerable populations of upcoming episodes of high air pollution.
21-1B.1-05 How can medical professionals help patients suffering from air quality related symptoms?
21-1B.1-06 How can schools help during episodes of air pollution?
21-1B.1-07 What are the economic costs of air pollution in Abu Dhabi Emirate
21-1B.2-01 How to best manage the: (a) cumulative effects of air pollutant emission sources,  (b) transport and dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere, to ensure an effective and cost-efficient attainment of federal emission limits.
21-1B.2-02 Which fixed and mobile emission sources should be prioritized for new or revised regulation and why?
21-1B.2-03 How to strengthen compliance with Air Quality Standards near Oil and Gas production areas? How other oil producing countries are ensuring compliance?
21-1B.3-01 Where are the hotspots for exposure to outdoor air pollution? 
21-1B.3-02 Where are the hotspots for exposure to noise pollution and are noise levels above federal limits? 
21-1B.3-03 How to reduce exposure of population to harmful doses of ambient air pollution and indoor air pollution.
21-1B.3-04 How to reduce exposure of population and wildlife to harmful noise levels in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. 
21-1B.3-05 How to forecast sand and dust storms for the next days?
21-1B.3-06 How to forecast air quality to effectively inform population?
21-1B.3-07 How to know real air emissions from road transport? 
21-1B.3-08 How to investigate the origin of emissions in cases of emergencies/non-compliance?
21-1B.3-09 How to predict the impact on the population and environment in cases of accidental chemical releases/emergencies?
21-1B.3-10 What is the source of the ozone precursors?
21-1B.3-11 What is the PM2.5 source apportionment?
Regulatory & monitoring improvement for the management of ambient marine water quality 21-1C.1-01 Full Cost Accounting of Brine Discharge into the Arabian Gulf
21-1C.1-02 Assess impacts on water quality and ecosystem functioning from plastics, microplastics and other contaminants
21-1C.1-03 Assess feasibility of brine use to support reductions in brine discharges
21-1C.1-04 Financial impact assesment of water quality deterioration scenarios (salinity, pH, contaminants, temperatures) an water desalination treatment costs
21-1C.2.01 Investigate the oceanographic and bathymetric patterns of the coastal and marine environment
21-1C.2.02 Minimise impacts of brine from desalinisation on marine environment
21-1C.2-03 Assess wastewater discharges other than brine and their impacts near ports / by the shipping industry
Conservation and sustainable management of groundwater reserves 21-2A.1-01 Determine the most effective triggers (-ve & +ve) of water consumer behaviour
21-2A.2-01 A comprehensive Legal Framework for Water Resources Management in Abu Dhabi: Towards Efficiency, Security, Fairness and Sustainability
21-2A.2-02 Development of spatial zoning for groundwater, with protection limits for each zone, in order to have differential protection for agriculture, forestry and natural ecosystems.
21-2A.3-01 Determine how social, political and economic factors affect water resources and identify those factors that have the most impact on changes in water resources
21-2A.3-02 What is the lowest theoretical water use by the agricultural sector to maintain the current level of agricultural production? What techniques would we need to employ to achieve this production?
21-2A.3-03 Assess the potential for cost effective exploitation of Abu Dhabi's deep aquifers
21-2A.4-01 Determine the impacts, including cumulative, of the various agricultural industries, different agricultural practices and other industries on the quality and quantity of water resources
21-2A.4-02 Analysis of residential water consumption, including the volumes and types of use of residential water consumption
21-2A.4-03 Assess the value of Abu Dhabi's water resources (groundwater and marine)
21-2A.4-04 Developing a Dynamic Approach to Water Budgeting for the Emirate of Abu Dhabi
21-2A.4-05 Determine the location, size and level of contamination in aquifers
21-2A.4-06 Modelling of aquifer behaviour post recharge
21-2A.4-07 Abu Dhabi has got it's groundwater quality baseline in 2018. But how good are we in understanding and assessing the groundwater quality trends?
21-2B.2-01 Investigate utilising the technology of remote sensing and drones to perform monitoring, assessment and mapping of soil quality with the incorporation of the use of artificial intelligence models to analyze data, find relations and patterns, identify and forecast soil quality scenarios.
21-3A.2-01 What is the most effective way to convince the public, Youth to reduce and recycle their waste
21-3A.2-02 What public drives for recycling, e.g. incentives/drivers of behaviour
21-3A.2-03 Is there any opportunity to treat chemical wastes generated from schools on the spot, accordingly reduce quantities handled by environmental service providers?
21-3A.2-04 How to identify the value and income of the dumped waste in return to industries
21-3A.3-01 Determine how significant sewage and solid waste are as contaminants
21-3A.3-02 Determine breakdown and volumes of waste generated in Abu Dhabi
21-3A.3-03 Cost benefit analysis of financial incentives in support of reducing virgin material consumption, waste generated and a circular economy model
21-3A.3-04 Baseline to understand extent of waste leakage in nature and assess priority actions to reduce leakage into natural ecosystems 
21-3A.3-05 Investigate the potential filtering or cleaning effects of particular species and / or ecosystems as related to different types of pollution and contamination, e.g. reedbed rootzone treatment.
21-3A.3-06 Leveraging technology to gather near real time data on MSW, generation, composition and disposal.
21-3A.3-07 Identifying mechanisms to validate data as per the newly adopted waste classification scheme.
Research, conservation, restoration and sustainable use of biodiversity 21-4A.1-01 Determine the status, distribution and abundance of mangroves that provide critical ecosystem service functions such as shoreline protection and act as nurseries
21-4A.1-02 Identify key ecological functions that support coastal habitat resilience / key stressors (how hydrodynamics and water quality affect mangrove status?)
21-4A.1-03 Determine migration patterns/corridors for green turtles, genetic population data ecology and biology of foraging turtles, poaching assessment
21-4A.1-04 Finescale spatial monitoring for turtle populations through in water surveys as well as population dynamics through genetic studies 
21-4A.1-05 Determine movement, migration and habtiat use patterns of key bird species and integrate results from tracking into local level planning and prioritisation of sites as well identifying critical sites along their migratory routes and possible challenges such as electrocution etc
21-4A.1-06 Improve knowledge of the abundance and distribution, habitat utilisation, threatening processes, conservation status indicators of key species
21-4A.1-07 Determine transboundary movement patterns/migration corridors, by-catch survey data
21-4A.1-08 Assess fishing gear type linked with high risk of by-catch & identify most relevant disentanglement techniques
21-4A.1-09 Assess impact of ghost gear and explore circular economy opportunities
21-4A.1-10 Collate strandings data, threatening processes, conservation status indicators, migration patterns/corridors, in order to establish a record of ecology and habitat utilisation for key species
21-4A.1-11 Determine abundance and distribution by habitat type, diversity and community structutre by habitat type (other than coral reefs). Movement patterns of migratory species eg. whale sharks
21-4A.1-12 Diversity and community structure data by selected habitat type and species inventories for other habitats 
21-4A.1-13 Population connectivity and linkages between marine habitats for key species 
21-4A.1-14 How, where, and when has biodiversity loss affected human welfare?
21-4A.1-15 What are the most effective approaches for reversing range and population collapse in top predators, large herbivores, and other species that exert disproportionate effects on ecosystem structure and function?
21-4A.1-16 What are the main ecological factors responsible for the decline of a target species?
21-4A.1-17 Which demographic component (reproduction, survival, etc.) of a target species is most affected by these factors?
21-4A.1-18 What are the qualitative and quantitative requirements of a target species regarding ecological resources (e.g. food, breeding sites)?
21-4A.1-19 What is the size of a minimum viable population for a target species?
21-4A.1-20 What are the spatial requirements of a target species (e.g. home range size, dispersal distance, minimum habitat patch size and critical inter-patch distance, minimum viable area for population persistence)?
21-4A.1-21 What are the potential effects of large-scale energy exploration, development, and extraction projects on ecosystems and species?
21-4A.1-22 In which ways are indigenous species affected by neobiota?
21-4A.1-23 What methods are effective to control invasive species?
21-4A.1-24 What are the best criteria for selecting surrogate species (e.g. indicator, umbrella species)?
21-4A.1-25 What are the best techniques for cost-efficient evaluation of the effectiveness of implemented conservation and restoration measures?
21-4A.1-26 What is the best strategy to integrate small areas or populations for promoting large-scale biodiversity?
21-4A.1-27 Identify coral reefs that are resilient to bleaching and disease within and outside of MPAs
21-4A.1-28 Determine cumulative impacts of coastal development on marine resources
21-4A.1-29 Collect population dynamics and habitat requirements information on threatened terrestrial species such as  Marine turtles, Dugong, dolphins, Arabian Tahr, Sand Cat, Socotra Cormorant, Sooty Falcons, Crab Plovers and other key species
21-4A.1-30 Understand movement & migration, habitat use and patterns of key migratory species using cutting edge technologies to identify important areas for their conservation
21-4A.1-31 Assess changes in land-use and land cover and also relate or predict or forecast changes in habitat based on DPM plans and possible implications on species
21-4A.1-32 Measure effectiveness of conservation actions using indices such as RLI for key taxa
21-4A.1-33 Impacts of increased temperature on key threateneed/vulnerable species
21-4A.1-34 What are the impacts of  fragmentation on distribution, abundance of key species?
21-4A.1-35 Determine the importance, location and extent of areas of ecosystem function in Abu Dhabi
21-4A.1-36 Determine how Abu Dhabi's ecosystems vary in terms of biodiversity
21-4A.1-37 Determine the environmental effects and degree of impact of extractive industries on ecosystems and biodiversity
21-4A.1-38 Determine the impacts of invasive species, diseases and pest species on various natural resources
21-4A.1-39 Aerial extent limited (10-14 m depth), mapping of deep water habitats required. Species inventories of associated flora and fauna, ecological assessments, the role of sea grass and coral habitats as nursery habitat is required
21-4A.1-40 Species inventories of associated flora and fauna, ecological assessments, regeneration capacity of natural stands, assessment/monitoring of plantations, human activities, threatening processes and conservation status indicators required.
21-4A.1-41 Detailed species inventories of associated flora and fauna, particularly invertebrates, ecological assessments, habitat use/human activities, threatening processes and conservation status indicators required.
21-4A.1-42 Ecological assessments (EIA, SEA, & cumulative impact studies), habitat use/human activities, threatening processes and conservation status indicators required.
21-4A.1-43 What is the reliance of natural vegetation on groundwater? What is the depth limit of groundwater in order to maintain the current natural vegetation?
21-4A.1-44 Species inventories, ecological assessments, habitat use/human activities, threatening processes and conservation status indicators required.
21-4A.2-01 Assess the impact of anthropogenic pressures on terrestrial and marine biodiversity, in particular critical habitats  (Determine the implications of loss or decline of important habitats on the extent of species abundance and distributions)
21-4A.2-02 Gap analysis of key habitat extent and species distribution under protection (Determine the proportion of populations and their ranges protected (within Pas) for 25 flagship species in Abu Dhabi and need for further conservation actions)
21-4A.2-03 Setting spatial targets for priority species/habitats to be includes into a 'spatial prioritisation of areas for biodiversity to inform future conservation strategies - that can result in expansion of PAs or identifying areas of special conservation importance that do not have to be outright protected but require careful management'. AGEDI's rapid assessment has been updated recently by EN-WWF through an expert driven process focusing on marine priority areas. The ouputs of this UAE wide study would need to be further explored wihtin the AD context and links with ICZM
21-4A.2-04 How can we mainstream biodiveristy into other sectoral policies? Exploring linkages with SDGs, sectoral policies and biodiversity and identiy key decision making tools to achieve this
21-4A.2-05 Develop key biodiversity guidelines for industy sectors to inform overall plans, EIAs etc. 
21-4A.2-06 Ecosystem Services Assessment of natural desert rangelands/ critical terrestrial habitats 
21-4A.2-07 Mapping of degraded terrestrial habitats with analysis on causes of this degradation and classification of recovery potential, in order to prioritise areas of restoration 
21-4A.2-08 Pilot study on feasibility of community managed terrestrial habitats ( desert rangelands) and their success in restoring ecosystem function and services 
21-4A.2-09 Socio economic assessment of livestock farms to evaluate whether their social or economic values justify their environmental cost ( Cost benefit analysis).
21-4A.2-10 Conduct cost-benefit analyses of tourism investments vs the value of ecosystem services
21-4A.2-11 Develop a tourism business model linked with PA management planning and sustainable finance planning as case studies to inform high level policies
21-4A.2-12 Assess & research  the impact of development pressure on critical habitats in Abu Dhabi 
21-4A.2-13 Are international conventions & local legislative framework ensuring effective protection &  in improving the status of key endangered species/habitats?
21-4A.2-14 How effective are our awareness and outreach activities in raising awareness on biodiversity
21-4A.2-15 What are key factors in decision making that can suppoprt mainstreaminng biodiversity into AD strategies and plans? 
21-4A.3-01 Determine the economic value of game and flagship species
21-4A.3-02 What is the cost-effectiveness of different contributions to species conservation programmes such as education, captive breeding, and habitat management?
21-4A.3-03 What are the ecosystem impacts of efforts to conserve charismatic, flagship, or umbrella species?
21-4A.3-04 Do critical thresholds exist at which the loss of species diversity, or the loss of particular species, disrupts ecosystem functions and services, and how can these thresholds be predicted?
21-4A.3-05 Determine the status, distribution and abundance of seagrass including important nursery areas
21-4A.3-06 What is the trade-off for biodiversity between balancing production of natural resources from intensive management systems, such as plantation forestry and aquaculture, versus harvesting those resources from more natural ecosystems?
21-4A.3-07 What was the condition of ecosystems before significant human disruption, and how can this knowledge be used to improve current and future management?
21-4A.3-08 What, and where, are the significant opportunities for large-scale ecosystem restoration that benefits biodiversity and human well-being?
21-4A.3-09 How can we plan ecosystem restoration? 
21-4A.3-10 What are the ecosystem functions that we aim to restore?
21-4A.3-11  How do we prioritise areas for restoration and how do we minimise environmental impacts?
21-4A.3-12  How can restoration inform wider conservation and ecosystem resilience strategies?
21-4A.3-13 How can ecosystem management systems be designed to better emulate natural processes, notably natural disturbance regimes, and to what extent does this improve conservation effectiveness?
21-4A.3-14 To what extent, and under what conditions, does the integration of marine, terrestrial, and freshwater ecosystems within conservation plans yield better outcomes than plans based on single realms?
21-4A.3-15 What spatial pattern of human settlement (e.g., clustered vs. dispersed) has the least impact on biodiversity?
21-4A.3-16 What is the contribution of areas that are intensively managed for production of commodities (such as food, timber, or biofuels) to conservation of biodiversity at the landscape scale?
21-4A.3-17 Understanding of household decisions to invest in natural resource-based productive activities (e.g., agriculture, fishing, or hunting) as predictor of biodiversity impacts of household responses to environmental change?
21-4A.3-18 What are the impacts of pest species on island ecosystems in the Arabian Gulf in particular islands with no formal management.
21-4A.4-01 Conduct cost-benefit analyses of oil and mineral extraction vs. value of ecosystem services
21-4A.4-02 What is the role of technologies and AI into monitoring spatial uses within PAs
21-4A.4-03 Conduct cost-benefit analyses of tourism investments vs the value of ecosystem services
21-4A.4-04 Determine the environmental effects and degree of impact of extractive industry sector on ecosystems and biodiversity
21-4A.4-05 Studies on impact and tolerance to marine discharges (effluents and thermal). Sediment tolerance limits of coastal marine habitats Research to identify appropriate indicator species of environmental impacts of key marine habitats
21-4A.4-06 Compare commercial fisheries stocks with different management regimes to assess the adequacy of current MPAs
21-4A.5-01 What are the impacts of increasing human dissociation from nature on the conservation of biodiversity?
21-4A.5-02 What is the role of sectors active in PA management and monitoring (can the tourism sector participate in certain programmes)?
21-4A.5-03 How to convince the public not to opt for societal choices that are detrimental to biodiversity?
21-4A.5-04 Investigate the role of natural resources and the environment in sustaining livelihoods
21-4A.6-01 To what extent can habitat restoration or rehabilitation compensate for loss of quantity or quality of existing species’ habitat?
Regulation development and enforcement for the recovery and sustainable exploitation of fisheries 21-4B.1-01 Which management actions are most effective for ensuring the long-term survival of coral reefs in response to the combined impacts of climate change and other existing stressors?
21-4B.1-02 Aquaculture methods/techniques/protocol for culturing local species.
21-4B.2-01 How will ocean acidification affect marine biodiversity and ecosystem function, and what measures could mitigate these effects?
21-4B.2-02 Determine the economic value of key fish species
21-4B.2-03 Investigate population processes and assess long-term viability of populations of key species, including game species, in the context of legal and illegal extraction
21-4B.2-04 Determine the status, distribution and abundance and size of key commercial fish species within and outside MPAs
21-4B.2-05 Determine the status, distribution and abundance of non-traditionally harvested species (such as oysters, sea cucumbers, seaweed etc) with an aim towards sustainable mariculture potential 
21-4B.2-06 Determine size limits for key commerical fish species
21-4B.2-07 Identify species being captured outside of known commercial species and the level of extraction
21-4B.2-08 Determine the level of extraction of known commercial species (including illegal, undersized and unreported catch)
21-4B.2-09 Determine population and stock structure, and source of larval supply for key species' stocks
21-4B.2-10 What is the role of key habitat types (throughout fish lifecycle) and how can spatial management tools support fish population recovery?
Development, evaluation, and mainstreaming of integrated policies, plans, and regulations  21-5A.1-01 What are the effects of renewable energy development (e.g. wind farms, hydropower micro-factories) on biodiversity?
21-5A.1-02 How can a success-oriented distribution of environmental subsidies (e.g. in agriculture and forestry) best deliver for biodiversity?
21-5A.1-03 Determine the effect of various land-use practices on geo-morphology and hydrology
21-5A.1-04 Determine how social, political and economic factors affect critical habitat cover and identify those factors that have the most impact on critical habitat cover changes
21-5A.1-05 Determine how social, political and economic factors affect key species population status and identify those factors that have the most impact on changes in key species populations
21-5A.1-06 How can the agenda of sustainable procurement be advanced across AD and the UAE? Could government entities lead by example?
21-5A.1-07 Undertake an assessment of climate change related risks to key Abu Dhabi sectors and develop a comprehensive adaptation plan in consultation with relevant entities
21-5A.2-01 Investigate the rate and extent to which water systems can recover from sewage contamination
Assessment, permitting, compliance and enforcement  21-6A.1-01 Update our knowledge on the new technological sectors that are arising and determine their environmental impact, so when they are introduced in the UAE we are aware of them
21-6A.1-02 How would EAD utilise the periodic data received from facilities in future fore-sighting? What’s the role of AI in pursuit to achieve it?
21-6A.1-03 What is the feasibility in having an environmental baseline with all the necessary information to assist the master planning process of external entities?
21-6A.1-04 How would incentives help proponents and facilities owners to comply with environmental conditions
Management of hazardous materials and environmental emergencies 21-6B.1-01 Determine the source and level of pollutants (including sewage, heavy metals and industrial scale ago-chemicals) and establish the degree and distribution of pollutants from these sources across the greater landscape
21-6B.1-02 Establish the toxicology of pollutants to humans and biodiversity
Delivery of the required environmental outreach and awareness programs 21-7C.1-01 What drives positive environmental behaviour?
21-7C.1-02 What drives behaviour change in corporate stakeholders? What type of information and messaging can drive positive environmental decision making for government stakeholders?
21-7C.1-03 What are the most critical enablers for government and private sector entities to advance resource efficiency and environment protection?
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